A letter written by Henri Matisse (1869-1954),
Excepts from a letter by Henri Matisse to Mr. Henry Clifford
An except from a catalog from the Philadelphia Museum of Art: Henri Matisse
Retrospective Exhibition Paintings, Drawings and Sculptures,
Venice, February 14, 1948
Dear Mr. Clifford:
I have always tried to hide my own efforts and wished my works to have the lightness
and joyousness of a springtime which never lets anyone suspect the labors that
it has cost. So I am afraid that the young, seeing in my work only the apparent
facility and negligence in the drawing, will use this as an excuse for dispensing
with certain efforts which I believe necessary.
The few exhibitions that I have had the opportunity of seeing during these last
years make me fear that the young painters are avoiding the slow and painful
preparation which is necessary for the education of any contemporary painter
who claims to construct by color alone.
This slow and painful work is indispensable. Indeed, if gardens were not dug
over at the proper time, they would soon be good for nothing. Do we not first
have to clear, and then cultivate, the ground at each season of the year?
When an artist has not known how to prepare his flowering period, by work which
bears little resemblance to the final result, he has a short future before him;
or when an artist who has "arrived" no longer feels the necessity
of getting back to earth from time to time, he begins to go round in circles
repeating himself, until by the very repetition, his curiosity is extinguished.
The future painter must feel what is useful for his development-- drawing or
even sculpture-- everything that will let him become one with Nature, identify
himself with her, by entering into the things--which is what I call Nature--that
arouse his feelings. I believe study by means of drawing is most essential.
If drawing is of the Spirit and color of the Senses, you must draw first, to
cultivate the spirit and to be able to lead color into spiritual paths. That
is what I want to cry aloud, when I see the work of the young men for whom painting
is no longer an adventure, and whose only goal is the impending first one-man
show which will first start them on the road to fame.
It is only after years of preparation that the young artist should touch color--
not color as description, that is, but as a means of intimate expression. Then
he can hope that all the images, even all the symbols, which he uses, will be
the reflection of his love for things, as a reflection in which he can have
confidence if he has been able to carry out his education, with purity, and
without lying to himself. Then he will employ color with discernment. He will
place it in accordance with a natural design, unformulated and completely concealed,
that will spring directly from his feelings; this is what allowed Toulouse-Lautrec,
at the end of his life, to exclaim, "At last, I do not know how to draw
The painter who is just beginning thinks that he paints from his heart. The
artist who has completed his development also thinks that he paints from his
heart. Only the latter is right, because his training and discipline allow him
to accept impulses that he can, at least partially, conceal.
I do not claim to teach; I only want my exhibition not to suggest false interpretations
to those who have their own way to make. I should like people to know that they
cannot approach color as if coming into a barn door ("entrer au moulin");
that one must go through a severe preparation to be worthy of it. But first
of all, it is clear that one must have a gift for color as a singer must have
a voice. Without this gift one can get nowhere, and not everyone can declare
like Correggio, "Anch in son pittore". A colorist makes his presence
known even in a simple charcoal drawing.
Yours gratefully, Henri Matisse.